Photic stimulation and visual physiology: Implications for behavioral studies

Joel S. Mindel, Stanley D. Glick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Behavioral studies using photic stimulation tend to ignore a multitude of complex relationships related to the interaction of light with the eye. Variations in retinal structure, photoreceptor sensitivity, light-dark adaptation, blink rate, and pupil size are uncontrolled. The phenomena of after images and electrical phosphenes are not considered. Visually crippled subjects such as albino rodents and dark-reared animals, are used without realizing the limitations this imposes on the interpretation of results. Pitfalls in experimental design and interpretation of data are discussed and specific papers are cited to illustrate the types of errors made when insufficient emphasis is placed on visual physiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-335
Number of pages11
JournalBehavioral Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1973


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