Phorbol myristate acetate induces endocytosis as well as exocytosis and hydroosmosis in toad urinary bladder

Sandra Kazahn Masur, Victor Sapirstein, Daneen Rivero

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22 Scopus citations


The induction of the hydroosmotic response in the toad urinary bladder is considered to be associated with membrane addition mediated by exocytosis at the affected luminal membrane and reversed by endocytic retrieval at that surface. The permeability, exocytosis and endocytosis are initiated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) receptor interaction on the basolateral membrane. In other hormone responsive systems, phorbol ester (phorbol myristate acetate, PMA), a tumor promoter, has been implicated in the regulation of various transport processes through the activation of protein kinase C and cytoskeletal protein phosphorylation. We found that addition of 10-6 M PMA to the mucosa induces an hydroosmotic response which is gradual and which reaches a maximum within 60 min, equal to about 1 3 the maximal ADH response. Morphologically, PMA causes rapid exocytosis of the granules, endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase from the mucosal medium into tubules and multivesicular bodies and elongation of apical microvilli. Controls treated with mucosal 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or an inactive PMA isomer on the mucosal surface, or PMA on the serosal surface lack the hydroosmotic, exocytic, endocytic and cytoskeletal changes. Addition of serosal ADH to PMA-treated bladders results in a precocious hydroosmotic and exocytic ADH response, but a lowering of the maximal response. Also pretreatment of bladders with PMA prevented the ADH-induced increase in transepithelial potential difference. Thus, apical events mediating the PMA hydroosmotic response are correlated with exo- and endocytosis and elongation of apical microvilli.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-296
Number of pages11
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes
Issue number2
StatePublished - 5 Dec 1985
Externally publishedYes


  • (Toad urinary bladder)
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis
  • Hydroosmosis
  • Phorbol ester


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