Phenomenology, socio-demographic factors and outcome upon discharge of manic and mixed episodes in hospitalized adolescents: AA chart review

Julie Brunelle, Angèle Consoli, Marie Laure Tanguy, Christophe Huynh, Didier Perisse, Emmanuelle Deniau, Jean Marc Guilé, Priscille Gérardin, David Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Background: The existence of bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) during adolescence is now clearly established whereas there are still some controversies on BD-II and BD-NOS diagnosis, mainly in Europe (O'Dowd in Br Med J 29, 2006). Little is known on the phenomenology and potential short-term prognosis factors of bipolar episodes in this age population. In particular, very few studies examine this issue on inpatients in the European context of free access to care. Objective: To describe the phenomenology of acute manic and mixed episodes in hospitalized adolescents and to analyse potential predictive factors associated with clinical improvement at discharge and length of hospitalization. Methods: A total of 80 subjects, aged 12-20 years, consecutively hospitalized for a manic or mixed episode. Socio-demographic and clinical data were extracted by reviewing patients' charts. We used a multivariate analysis to evaluate short-term outcome predictors. Results: The sample was characterized by severe impairment, high rates of psychotic features (N = 50, 62.5%), a long duration of stay (mean 80.4 days), and an overall good improvement (86% very much or much improved). Thirty-three (41.3 %) patients had a history of depressive episodes, 13 (16.3%) had manic or brief psychotic episodes but only 3 (3.7%) had a history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. More manic episodes than mixed episodes were identified in subjects with mental retardation (MR) and in subjects from migrant and/or low socio-economic families. Overall severity and female gender predicted better improvement in GAF scores. Poor insight and the existence of psychotic features predicted longer duration of stay. Conclusion: These results suggest that severe manic and mixed episodes in adolescents with BD-I need prolonged inpatient care to improve and that socio-cultural factors and MR should be examined more closely in youth with BD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-193
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute episode
  • Adolescent
  • Bipolar disorder type I
  • Prognosis
  • Socio-cultural factors


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