Pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine in Japanese cancer patients: The impact of a cytidine deaminase polymorphism

Emiko Sugiyama, Nahoko Kaniwa, Su Ryang Kim, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Keiko Maekawa, Yoshiro Saito, Shogo Ozawa, Jun Ichi Sawada, Naoyuki Kamatani, Junji Furuse, Hiroshi Ishii, Teruhiko Yoshida, Hideki Ueno, Takuji Okusaka, Nagahiro Saijo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

178 Scopus citations


Purpose: Gemcitabine is rapidly metabolized to its inactive metabolite, 2′,2′-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU), by cytidine deaminase (CDA). We previously reported that a patient with homozygous 208A alleles of CDA showed severe adverse reactions with an increase in gemcitabine plasma level. This study extended the investigation of the effects of CDA genetic polymorphisms on gemcitabine pharmacokinetics and toxicities. Patients and Methods: Genotyping of CDA was performed by a direct sequencing of DNA obtained from the peripheral blood of Japanese gemcitabine-naïve cancer patients (n = 256). The patients recruited to the association study received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of gemcitabine at a dose of either 800 or 1,000 mg/m2, and eight blood samples were periodically collected (n = 250). Plasma levels of gemcitabine and dFdU were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma CDA activities toward cytidine and gemcitabine were also measured (n = 121). Results: Twenty-six genetic variations, including 14 novel ones and two known nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were detected. Haplotypes harboring the nonsynonymous SNPs 79A<C (Lys27Gln) and 208G<A (Ala70Thr) were designated *2 and *3, respectively. The allelic frequencies of the two SNPs were 0.207 and 0.037, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters of gemcitabine and plasma CDA activities significantly depended on the number of haplotype *3. Haplotype *3 was also associated with increased incidences of grade 3 or higher neutropenia in the patients who were coadministered fluorouracil, cisplatin, or carboplatin. Haplotype *2 showed no significant effect on gemcitabine pharmacokinetics. Conclusion: Haplotype *3 harboring a nonsynonymous SNP, 208G<A (Ala70Thr), decreased clearance of gemcitabine, and increased incidences of neutropenia when patients were coadministered platinum-containing drugs or fluorouracil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-42
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes


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