Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral heparin solid dosage form in healthy human subjects

Shaker A. Mousa, Zhang Fuming Zhang, Ahmad Aljada, Seema Chaturvedi, Majde Takieddin, Zhang Haifeng Zhang, Chi Lianli Chi, M. Cristina Castelli, Kristen Friedman, Michael M. Goldberg, Robert J. Linhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


The present investigation determined the molecular structure and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of oral unfractionated heparin containing oral absorption enhancer sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino]caprylate, salcaprozate sodium (SNAC) and assessed the safety and tolerability of the orally dosed heparin solid dosage form versus other routes. Sixteen healthy men were included in this single-dose, 3-way crossover, randomized, open-label study. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection. The pharmacodynamics of heparin were obtained from analysis of plasma anti-factor Xa, anti-factor IIa, activated partial thromboplastin time, and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor data. The molecular weight properties and the disaccharide composition of orally administered unfractionated heparin/SNAC and parenterally administered unfractionated heparin are identical and consistent with the starting pharmaceutical standard heparin. Furthermore, the anti-factor Xa/anti-factor IIa ratio achieved is of approximately 1:1. This is the first true pharmacokinetic study to measure the chemical compositions of heparin administered by different routes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1508-1520
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Anticoagulants
  • Heparin composition
  • Oral heparin
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Solid dosage form


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