Pediatric ECG-Based Deep Learning to Predict Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodeling

Joshua Mayourian, William G. La Cava, Akhil Vaid, Girish N. Nadkarni, Sunil J. Ghelani, Rebekah Mannix, Tal Geva, Audrey Dionne, Mark E. Alexander, Son Q. Duong, John K. Triedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence-enhanced ECG analysis shows promise to detect ventricular dysfunction and remodeling in adult populations. However, its application to pediatric populations remains underexplored. METHODS: A convolutional neural network was trained on paired ECG-echocardiograms (≤2 days apart) from patients ≤18 years of age without major congenital heart disease to detect human expert-classified greater than mild left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation (individually and as a composite outcome). Model performance was evaluated on single ECG-echocardiogram pairs per patient at Boston Children's Hospital and externally at Mount Sinai Hospital using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC). RESULTS: The training cohort comprised 92 377 ECG-echocardiogram pairs (46 261 patients; median age, 8.2 years). Test groups included internal testing (12 631 patients; median age, 8.8 years; 4.6% composite outcomes), emergency department (2830 patients; median age, 7.7 years; 10.0% composite outcomes), and external validation (5088 patients; median age, 4.3 years; 6.1% composite outcomes) cohorts. Model performance was similar on internal test and emergency department cohorts, with model predictions of LV hypertrophy outperforming the pediatric cardiologist expert benchmark. Adding age and sex to the model added no benefit to model performance. When using quantitative outcome cutoffs, model performance was similar between internal testing (composite outcome: AUROC, 0.88, AUPRC, 0.43; LV dysfunction: AUROC, 0.92, AUPRC, 0.23; LV hypertrophy: AUROC, 0.88, AUPRC, 0.28; LV dilation: AUROC, 0.91, AUPRC, 0.47) and external validation (composite outcome: AUROC, 0.86, AUPRC, 0.39; LV dysfunction: AUROC, 0.94, AUPRC, 0.32; LV hypertrophy: AUROC, 0.84, AUPRC, 0.25; LV dilation: AUROC, 0.87, AUPRC, 0.33), with composite outcome negative predictive values of 99.0% and 99.2%, respectively. Saliency mapping highlighted ECG components that influenced model predictions (precordial QRS complexes for all outcomes; T waves for LV dysfunction). High-risk ECG features include lateral T-wave inversion (LV dysfunction), deep S waves in V1 and V2 and tall R waves in V6 (LV hypertrophy), and tall R waves in V4 through V6 (LV dilation). CONCLUSIONS: This externally validated algorithm shows promise to inexpensively screen for LV dysfunction and remodeling in children, which may facilitate improved access to care by democratizing the expertise of pediatric cardiologists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-931
Number of pages15
Issue number12
StatePublished - 19 Mar 2024


  • artificial intelligence
  • electrophysiology
  • pediatric cardiology
  • ventricular dysfunction
  • ventricular remodeling


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