Patterns of anxiety and personality disorder comorbidity

Andrew E. Skodol, John M. Oldham, Steven E. Hyler, Dan J. Stein, Eric Hollander, Peggy E. Gallaher, Anne E. Lopez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of comorbidity of DSM-III-R anxiety disorders and personality disorders (PD). Two-hundred subjects were independently interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) and the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE) face-to-face by two experienced clinicians. One-hundred and forty-six also completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R). Rates of personality disorder among patients with and without anxiety disorders were determined by each of the three instruments. Comorbidity between panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and simple phobia and a conservative estimate of individual Axis II disorders was examined. Results indicate that panic disorder, either current or lifetime, is associated with borderline, avoidant, and dependent personality disorders; social phobia is associated with avoidant personality disorder; and obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with obsessive-compulsive and avoidant personality disorders. Anxiety disorders with personality disorders are characterized by chronicity and lower levels of functioning compared with anxiety disorders without personality disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-374
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


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