Pathways to fatherhood: clinical experiences with assisted reproductive technology in single and coupled intended fathers

Brent Monseur, Joseph A. Lee, Melody Qiu, Angely Liang, Alan B. Copperman, Mark Leondires

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: To explore the cycle characteristics and outcomes of single and coupled intended fathers (SCIFs) using assisted reproductive technology. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Multicenter, fertility practices from 2016 to 2020. Patient(s): In this study, cycles among SCIFs with access to fertility coverage from 2016 to 2020 were included. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Our primary outcome was live birth rate. The secondary outcomes included the number of embryos transferred, miscarriage rate, and incidence of multifetal birth. Result(s): Five single and 39 coupled intended fathers completed an in vitro fertilization cycle with a majority using egg donation and an agency-based gestational carrier (69.7%, 83/119). In most couples, both partners wanted to serve as the sperm source (64.4%, 29/45). The vast majority (97.7%, 43/44) also used preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy. Among the embryo transfer (ET) cycles (n = 27), most consisted of a single euploid ET (74.07%, 20/27), whereas the remaining consisted of a double euploid ET (25.92%, 7/27). The SCIFs had high rates of success, with a live birth rate of 85.19% (23/27). A mean of 1.26 ± 0.44 embryos were transferred, with a majority resulting in singleton birth (70.37%, 19/27). Conclusion(s): Our study of SCIFs using assisted reproductive technology in the United States demonstrates that this population shares similar preferences for sperm source and the use of preimplantation genetic testing. Clinical outcomes suggest that this population is successful at achieving a live birth when using egg donation and a gestational carrier.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-323
Number of pages7
JournalF and S Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • LGBTQ+
  • assisted reproductive technologies
  • fatherhood
  • gay
  • sexual and gender minorities


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