Non-IgE-mediated food allergies are a group of disorders characterized by subacute or chronic inflammatory processes in the gut. Unlike IgE mediated food allergies that may result in multi-organ system anaphylaxis, the non-IgE mediated food allergies primarily affect the gastrointestinal tract. This review outlines the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of non-IgE-mediated food allergies. An updated literature search of selected non-IgE-mediated food allergies was conducted for this review using PubMed database to the current year (2021). Reviewed disorders include food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food-protein enteropathy (FPE), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). While extensive gains have been made in understanding FPIES, FPIAP, FPE, and EoE, more information is needed on the pathophysiology of these food allergies. Similarities among them include involvement of innate immunity, T-lymphocyte processes, alteration of the intestinal lumen at the cellular level with the appearance of inflammatory cells and associated histologic changes, and specific cytokine profiles suggesting food-specific, T-cell, and immune-mediated responses. While FPIES and FPIAP typically resolve in early childhood, EGIDs typically do not. Emerging new therapies for EoE offer promise of additional treatment options. Further studies identifying the immunopathogenesis, associated biomarkers, and mechanisms of tolerance are needed to inform prevention, diagnosis and management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-446
Number of pages16
JournalImmunoTargets and Therapy
StatePublished - 2021


  • EGIDs
  • EoE
  • FPE
  • eosinophilic esophagitis
  • eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders
  • food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis
  • food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome
  • food protein-induced enteropathy
  • pathophysiology


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