Paraumbilical venous collateral circulations: Color Doppler ultrasound features

Hsu Chong Yeh, Agata Stancato-Pasik, Roger Ramos, Jack G. Rabinowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Using Color Doppler ultrasonography to trace the dilated paraumbilical vein to its connection with systemic veins in 27 patients, we have found four major pathways: In type 1 (63%), the vein connected with the external iliac vein via the inferior epigastric vein. In type 2 (3.7%), the vein connected with the saphenous vein via the superficial epigastric vein. In type 3 (22.2%), the vein connected with the internal thoracic vein via the superior epigastric vein. Type 4 (11.1%) is a combination of types 1 and 2. A frank caput medusa was not seen, but occult caput medusae were seen in two patients. Turbulent flow was seen at the junction between inferior epigastric and external iliac veins, paraumbilical and superficial epigastric veins, and superficial epigastric and saphenous veins in some patients. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient, noninvasive method for determining the course and associated hemodynamic changes in the paraumbilical collateral circulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-366
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Ultrasound
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 1996


  • Cirrhosis
  • Paraumbilical veins, dilated
  • Portal hypertension


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