Paramyxovirus V proteins are known antagonists of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated interferon induction pathway, interacting with and inhibiting the RLR MDA5. We report interactions between the Nipah virus V protein and both RIG-I regulatory protein TRIM25 and RIG-I. We also observed interactions between these host proteins and the V proteins of measles virus, Sendai virus, and parainfluenza virus. These interactions are mediated by the conserved C-terminal domain of the V protein, which binds to the tandem caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) of RIG-I (the region of TRIM25 ubiquitination) and to the SPRY domain of TRIM25, which mediates TRIM25 interaction with the RIG-I CARDs. Furthermore, we show that V interaction with TRIM25 and RIG-I prevents TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination of RIG-I and disrupts downstream RIG-I signaling to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein. This is a novel mechanism for innate immune inhibition by paramyxovirus V proteins, distinct from other known V protein functions such as MDA5 and STAT1 antagonism.
- Innate immunity