HIV-1 causes a persistent infection of the immune system that is associated with chronic comorbidities. The mechanisms that underlie this inflammation are poorly understood. Emerging literature has implicated proinflammatory purinergic receptors and downstream signaling mediators in HIV-1 infection. This study probed whether inhibitors of purinergic receptors would reduce HIV-1 infection and HIV-1stimulated inflammation. An ex vivo human tonsil histoculture infection model was developed to support HIV-1 productive infection and stimulated the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) and the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). This study tests whether inhibitors of purinergic receptors would reduce HIV-1 infection and HIV-1-stimulated inflammation. The purinergic P2X1 receptor antagonist NF449, the purinergic P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079, and azidothymidine (AZT) were tested in HIV-1-infected human tonsil explants to compare levels of inhibition of HIV-1 infection and HIV-stimulated inflammatory cytokine production. All drugs limited HIV-1 productive infection, but P2X-selective antagonists (NF449 and A438079) significantly lowered HIV-stimulated IL-10 and IL-1. We further observed that P2X1- and P2X7-selective antagonists can act differentially as inhibitors of both HIV-1 infection and HIV-1-stimulated inflammation. Our findings highlight the differential effects of HIV-1 on inflammation in peripheral blood compared to those in lymphoid tissue. For the first time, we demonstrate that P2X-selective antagonists act differentially as inhibitors of both HIV-1 infection and HIV-1-stimulated inflammation. Drugs that block these pathways can have independent inhibitory activities against HIV-1 infection and HIV-induced inflammation. IMPORTANCE Patients who are chronically infected with HIV-1 experience sequelae related to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms of this inflammation have not been elucidated. Here, we describe a class of drugs that target the P2X proinflammatory signaling receptors in a human tonsil explant model. This model highlights differences in HIV-1 stimulation of lymphoid tissue inflammation and peripheral blood. These drugs serve to block both HIV-1 infection and production of IL-10 and IL-1 in lymphoid tissue, suggesting a novel approach to HIV-1 therapeutics in which both HIV-1 replication and inflammatory signaling are simultaneously targeted.
|Journal||Journal of Virology|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2019|
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Infectious disease