Oxidative phosphorylation in HIV-1 infection: impacts on cellular metabolism and immune function

Natalia Rodriguez Rodriguez, Trinisia Fortune, Esha Hegde, Matthew Paltiel Weinstein, Aislinn M. Keane, Jesse F. Mangold, Talia H. Swartz

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) presents significant challenges to the immune system, predominantly characterized by CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively suppresses the viral load in people with HIV (PWH), leading to a state of chronic infection that is associated with inflammation. This review explores the complex relationship between oxidative phosphorylation, a crucial metabolic pathway for cellular energy production, and HIV-1, emphasizing the dual impact of HIV-1 infection and the metabolic and mitochondrial effects of ART. The review highlights how HIV-1 infection disrupts oxidative phosphorylation, promoting glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to facilitate viral replication. ART can exacerbate metabolic dysregulation despite controlling viral replication, impacting mitochondrial DNA synthesis and enhancing reactive oxygen species production. These effects collectively contribute to significant changes in oxidative phosphorylation, influencing immune cell metabolism and function. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated through oxidative phosphorylation can influence the metabolic landscape of infected cells through ATP-detected purinergic signaling and contributes to immunometabolic dysfunction. Future research should focus on identifying specific targets within this pathway and exploring the role of purinergic signaling in HIV-1 pathogenesis to enhance HIV-1 treatment modalities, addressing both viral infection and its metabolic consequences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1360342
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
StatePublished - 2024


  • HIV-1
  • antiretroviral therapy (ART)
  • immune metabolism
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • oxidative phosphorylation


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