Outpatient cervical ripening and labor induction with low-dose vaginal misoprostol reduces the interval to delivery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Gustavo Vilchez, Rachel Meislin, Lifeng Lin, Katherine Gonzalez, Jordan McKinney, Andrew Kaunitz, Joanne Stone, Luis Sanchez-Ramos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have summarized the evidence on the efficacy and safety of various outpatient cervical ripening methods. However, the method with the highest efficacy and safety profile has not been determined conclusively. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy and safety of cervical ripening methods currently employed in the outpatient setting. Data Sources: With the assistance of an experienced medical librarian, we performed a systematic search of the literature using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We systematically searched electronic databases from inception to January 14, 2020. Study Eligibility Criteria: We considered randomized controlled trials comparing a variety of methods for outpatient cervical ripening. Methods: We conducted a frequentist random effects network meta-analysis employing data from randomized controlled trials. We performed a direct, pairwise meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of various outpatient cervical ripening methods, including placebo. We employed ranking strategies to determine the most efficacious method using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve; a higher surface under the cumulative ranking curve value implied a more efficacious method. We assessed the following outcomes: time from intervention to delivery, cesarean delivery rates, changes in the Bishop score, need for additional ripening methods, incidence of Apgar scores <7 at 5 minutes, and uterine hyperstimulation. Results: We included data from 42 randomized controlled trials including 6093 participants. When assessing the efficacy of all methods, 25 μg vaginal misoprostol was the most efficacious in reducing the time from intervention to delivery (surface under the cumulative ranking curve of 1.0) without increasing the odds of cesarean delivery, the need for additional ripening methods, the incidence of a low Apgar score, or uterine hyperstimulation. Acupressure (surface under the cumulative ranking curve of 0.3) and primrose oil (surface under the cumulative ranking curve of 0.2) were the least effective methods in reducing the time to delivery interval. Among effective methods, 50 mg oral mifepristone was associated with the lowest odds of cesarean delivery (surface under the cumulative ranking curve of 0.9). Conclusion: When balancing efficacy and safety, vaginal misoprostol 25 μg represents the best method for outpatient cervical ripening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S716-S728.e61
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume230
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • network meta-analysis
  • outpatient cervical ripening methods
  • overview

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