Outpatient and Ambulatory Extended Recovery Robotic Hepatectomy: Multinational Study of 307 Cases

James O. Park, Kelly Lafaro, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Laleh Melstrom, Michael F. Gerhards, Burak Görgec, Hendrik A. Marsman, Lucas W. Thornblade, Gabriela Pilz da Cunha, Frank F. Yang, Kevin P. Labadie, Jonathan G. Sham, Rutger Jan Swijnenburg, Jin He, Yuman Fong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: For open minor hepatectomy, morbidity and recovery are dominated by the incision. The robotic approach may transform this "incision dominant procedure" into a safe outpatient procedure. STUDY DESIGN: We audited outpatient (less than 2 midnights) robotic hepatectomy at 6 hepatobiliary centers in 2 nations to test the hypothesis that the robotic approach can be a safe and effective short-stay procedure. Establishing early recovery after surgery programs were active at all sites, and home digital monitoring was available at 1 of the institutions. RESULTS: A total of 307 outpatient (26 same-day and 281 next-day discharge) robotic hepatectomies were identified (2013 to 2023). Most were minor hepatectomies (194 single segments, 90 bi-segmentectomies, 14 three segments, and 8 four segments). Thirty-nine (13%) were for benign histology, whereas 268 were for cancer (33 hepatocellular carcinoma, 27 biliary, and 208 metastatic disease). Patient characteristics were a median age of 60 years (18 to 93 years), 55% male, and a median BMI of 26 kg/m 2 (14 to 63 kg/m 2 ). Thirty (10%) patients had cirrhosis. One hundred eighty-seven (61%) had previous abdominal operation. Median operative time was 163 minutes (30 to 433 minutes), with a median blood loss of 50 mL (10 to 900 mL). There were no deaths and 6 complications (2%): 2 wound infections, 1 failure to thrive, and 3 perihepatic abscesses. Readmission was required in 5 (1.6%) patients. Of the 268 malignancy cases, 25 (9%) were R1 resections. Of the 128 with superior segment resections (segments 7, 8, 4A, 2, and 1), there were 12 positive margins (9%) and 2 readmissions for abscess. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient robotic hepatectomy in well-selected cases is safe (0 mortality, 2% complication, and 1.6% readmission), including resection in the superior or posterior portions of the liver that is challenging with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-67
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2024
Externally publishedYes

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