Outcomes of Simultaneous Heart and Kidney Transplantation

Shinobu Itagaki, Nana Toyoda, Noah Moss, Donna Mancini, Natalia Egorova, Takahisa Mikami, Erick Sun, Yuki Bekki, Gregory Serrao, Anuradha Lala, Percy Boateng, David H. Adams, Anelechi C. Anyanwu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation has been increasingly performed in end-stage heart failure patients with concurrent kidney dysfunction despite limited evidence supporting its indications and utility. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and utility of simultaneously implanted kidney allografts with various degrees of kidney dysfunction during heart transplantation. Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing registry, long-term mortality was compared in recipients with kidney dysfunction who underwent heart-kidney transplantation (n = 1,124) vs isolated heart transplantation (n = 12,415) in the United States between 2005 and 2018. In heart-kidney recipients, contralateral kidney recipients were compared for allograft loss. Multivariable Cox regression was used for risk adjustment. Results: Long-term mortality was lower among heart-kidney recipients than among heart-alone recipients when recipients were on dialysis (26.7% vs 38.6% at 5 years; HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58-0.89) or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (19.3% vs 32.4%; HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.82) and GFR of 30 to 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (16.2% vs 24.3%; HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48-0.97) but not in GFR of 45 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interaction analysis showed that the mortality benefit of heart-kidney transplantation continued up to GFR 40 mL/min/1.73 m2. The incidence of kidney allograft loss was higher among heart-kidney recipients than among contralateral kidney recipients (14.7% vs 4.5% at 1 year; HR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.1). Conclusions: Heart-kidney transplantation relative to heart transplantation alone provided superior survival for dialysis-dependent recipients and non–dialysis-dependent recipients up to a GFR of approximately 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 but at the cost of almost twice the risk of kidney allograft loss than contralateral kidney allograft recipients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-740
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - 28 Feb 2023


  • allograft failure
  • listing criteria
  • multiorgan transplantation
  • safety net policy
  • simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation


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