Outcomes in Pump- and CGM-Baseline Use Subgroups in the International Diabetes Closed-Loop Trial

Laya Ekhlaspour, Dan Raghinaru, Gregory P. Forlenza, Elvira Isganaitis, Yogish C. Kudva, David W. Lam, Camilla Levister, Grenye O’Malley, Mei Mei Church, John W. Lum, Bruce Buckingham, Sue A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: We investigated the potential benefits of automated insulin delivery (AID) among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in sub-populations of baseline device use determined by continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use status and insulin delivery via multiple daily injections (MDI) or insulin pump. Materials and Methods: In a six-month randomized, multicenter trial, 168 individuals were assigned to closed-loop control (CLC, Control-IQ, Tandem Diabetes Care), or sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. The trial included a two- to eight-week run-in phase to train participants on study devices. The participants were stratified into four subgroups: insulin pump and CGM (pump+CGM), pump-only, MDI and CGM (MDI+CGM), and MDI users without CGM (MDI-only) users. We compared glycemic outcomes among four subgroups. Results: At baseline, 61% were pump+CGM users, 18% pump-only users, 10% MDI+CGM users, and 11% MDI-only users. Mean time in range 70-180 mg/dL (TIR) improved from baseline in the four subgroups using CLC: pump+CGM, 62% to 73%; pump-only, 61% to 70%; MDI+CGM, 54% to 68%; and MDI-only, 61% to 69%. The reduction in time below 70 mg/dL from baseline was comparable among the four subgroups. No interaction effect was detected with baseline device use for TIR (P =.67) or time below (P =.77). On the System Usability Questionnaire, scores were high at 26 weeks for all subgroups: pump+CGM: 87.2 ± 12.1, pump-only: 89.4 ± 8.2, MDI+CGM 87.2 ± 9.3, MDI: 78.1 ± 15. Conclusions: There was a consistent benefit in patients with T1D when using CLC, regardless of baseline insulin delivery modality or CGM use. These data suggest that this CLC system can be considered across a wide range of patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)935-942
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of diabetes science and technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • closed-loop control
  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • efficacy
  • insulin pump
  • multiple daily injection


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