Outcomes from a prospectively implemented protocol using apixaban after robot-assisted radical cystectomy

Jordan M. Rich, Yuval Elkun, Jack Geduldig, Etienne Lavallee, Reza Mehrazin, Kyrollis Attalla, Peter Wiklund, John P. Sfakianos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of oral apixaban with that of injectable enoxaparin after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) thromboprophylaxis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for all RARC patients treated at our tertiary care centre between 2018 and 2022. The study included two groups: patients who were subject to a prospectively implemented protocol from October 2021 to the present, comprising a 21-day postoperative course of apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily after discharge, and patients treated prior to October 2021 who received enoxaparin 40 mg daily. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics, such as VTE (defined as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism), were analysed. The primary outcome was incidence of symptomatic VTE confirmed with definitive imaging within 90 days of RARC. Secondary outcomes included major bleeding, complications, readmission, and mortality within 30 days postoperatively. Descriptive statistics included baseline patient characteristics, operative information and complications. Differences in baseline characteristics and postoperative data were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables and the primary outcome. Results: A total of 124 patients received apixaban and 250 patients received enoxaparin prophylaxis. Ten patients (2.7%) experienced a VTE within 90 days postoperatively (two [1.6%] apixaban group vs eight [3.2%] enoxaparin group; P = 0.5). After patient stratification into European Association of Urology risk groups, no statistically significant difference in VTE rates was seen between groups in the apixaban (2.7% high- + intermediate-risk group vs 1.1% low-risk group; P = 0.5) and enoxaparin cohorts (4.3% high- + intermediate-risk group vs 2.5% low-risk group; P = 0.5). On multivariate logistic regression, no variables were associated with the development of the primary outcome. Conclusion: Prophylaxis with apixaban and enoxaparin showed no statistically significant differences in VTE rates among RARC patients. Apixaban appears to be safe and effective for VTE prophylaxis after RARC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)390-396
Number of pages7
JournalBJU International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • apixaban
  • bladder cancer
  • enoxaparin
  • prophylaxis
  • radical cystectomy
  • robotic surgery
  • venous thromboembolism


Dive into the research topics of 'Outcomes from a prospectively implemented protocol using apixaban after robot-assisted radical cystectomy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this