Outcomes, complications, utilization trends, and risk factors for primary and revision total elbow replacement

Andrew J. Lovy, Aakash Keswani, James Dowdell, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Michael R. Hausman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Background: Using a validated database, 30-day complications of primary and revision total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) were analyzed to identify risk factors of adverse events. Methods: Primary and revision TEAs from 2007 to 2013 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for 30-day adverse events were assessed using preoperative and intraoperative variables. Results: The study reviewed 189 primary and 53 revision TEA patients. Fracture (34%), osteoarthritis (24%), and rheumatoid arthritis (23%) were the most common indications for TEA. Adverse event rate was similar in primary and revision TEA (12% vs. 15%; P = .49), and infectious complications occurred in 3.2% of primary TEAs and 7.5% of revision TEAs (P = .23). Bivariate analysis of risk factors for 30-day adverse events identified dependent functional status in primary TEA (P = .03) and age in revision TEA (P = .02). Multivariate analysis of primary TEA revealed that adverse events were significantly less likely with rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritis etiology (odds ratio, 0.15; P = .02), and smoking was associated with an increased chance of infection (odds ratio, 6.96; P = .03). Revision TEA was not associated with an increased 30-day adverse event or infection rate compared with primary TEA in multivariate analysis. Among primary and revision TEA patients, dependent functional status (P = .02) and hypertension (P = .04) were independent predictors for adverse events. Conclusion: Modifiable risk factors should be addressed before TEA to limit postoperative complications as well as cost. The risk of short-term complications after revision TEA is comparable to that of primary TEA. Level of evidence: Level IV; Case Series Using Large Database; Treatment Study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1020-1026
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2016


  • Complications
  • Etiology
  • Revision
  • Risk factors
  • Total elbow arthroplasty
  • Total elbow replacement
  • Utilization trends


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