Outcome Measures to Assess Dry Eye Severity: A Review

Kyle J. Hirabayashi, Esen K. Akpek, Sumayya Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Outcome measures used to assess efficacy of dry eye therapeutics have not been consistently applied in clinical settings, nor have they been shown to correlate with functional outcomes. We propose that corneal staining, a clinically meaningful dry eye parameter, should be used as a standard objective outcome measure across all clinical trials evaluating dry eye treatments. We justify this based on evidence regarding its relationship to vision and vision related quality-of-life. In addition, corneal staining has been shown to correlate with ocular surface inflammation, a well elucidated aspect of dry eye pathophysiology and an active area in therapeutics research. No one outcome measure explored herein correlates perfectly to this heterogenous disease. However, there is mounting evidence showing the correlation between corneal staining and functional visual indices. We hope that future clinical trials will standardize corneal staining as a measure to determine the efficacy of interventions and justify their clinical utility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-289
Number of pages8
JournalOcular Immunology and Inflammation
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022


  • Dry eye
  • corneal staining
  • functional visual acuity
  • ocular inflammation
  • ocular therapeutics
  • outcome measure


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