Osmotic Pressure in Clinical Medicine with an Emphasis on Dialysis

Jochen G. Raimann, Antonios H. Tzamaloukas, Nathan W. Levin, Todd S. Ing

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Since the beginning of life of the first multicellular organisms, the preservation of a physiologic milieu for every cell in the organism has been a critical requirement. A particular range of osmolality of the body fluids is essential for the maintenance of cell volume. In humans the stability of electrolyte concentrations and their resulting osmolality in the body fluids is the consequence of complex interactions between cell membrane functions, hormonal control, thirst, and controlled kidney excretion of fluid and solutes. Knowledge of these mechanisms, of the biochemical principles of osmolality, and of the relevant situations occurring in disease is of importance to every physician. This comprehensive review summarizes the major facts on osmolality, its relation to electrolytes and other solutes, and its relevance in physiology and in disease states with a focus on dialysis-related considerations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-79
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in Dialysis
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes

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