Origin, distribution, and potential risk factors associated with influenza A virus in swine in two production systems in Guatemala

Ana S. Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L. Ramírez, María L. Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M. Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R. Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. Objectives: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. Methods: Samples from two nationwide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition) assays to detect IAV. Results: Influenza A virus was detected in 15.7% of the sampled pigs (30.6% of herds) in 2010 and in 11.7% (24.2% of herds) in 2011. The percentage of seropositive pigs was 10.6% (16.1% of herds) and 1.4% (3.1% of herds) for each year, respectively. Three pandemic H1N1 and one seasonal human-like H3N2 viruses were isolated. Antibodies against viruses from different genetic clusters were detected. No reassortant strains with swine viruses were detected. The H3N2 virus was closely related to human viruses that circulated in Central America in 2010, distinct to the most recent human seasonal vaccine lineages. Spatial clusters of rRT-PCR positive herds were detected each year by scan statistics. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate circulation of IAV throughout Guatemala and identify commercial farms, animal health status, and age as potential risk factors associated with IAV infection and exposure. Detection of human-origin viruses in pigs suggests a role for humans in the molecular epidemiology of IAV in swine in Guatemala and evidences gaps in local animal and human surveillance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-192
Number of pages11
JournalInfluenza and other Respiratory Viruses
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • Central America
  • Guatemala
  • epidemiology
  • farm
  • influenza A virus
  • phylogeny
  • spatial analysis
  • swine


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