Optimizing the methodology for saphenous nerve somatosensory evoked potentials for monitoring upper lumbar roots and femoral nerve during lumbar spine surgery: technical note

M. Ángeles Sánchez Roldán, Francisco Mora Granizo, Victoria Oflidis, Konstantinos Margetis, Maria J. Téllez, Sedat Ulkatan, Jun Kimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The demand for intraoperative monitoring (IOM) of lumbar spine surgeries has escalated to accommodate more challenging surgical approaches to prevent perioperative neurologic deficits. Identifying impending injury of individual lumbar roots can be done by assessing free-running EMG and by monitoring the integrity of sensory and motor fibers within the roots by eliciting somatosensory (SEP), and motor evoked potentials. However, the common nerves for eliciting lower limb SEP do not monitor the entire lumbar plexus, excluding fibers from L1 to L4 roots. We aimed to technically optimize the methodology for saphenous nerve SEP (Sap-SEP) proposed for monitoring upper lumbar roots in the operating room. In the first group, the saphenous nerve was consecutively stimulated in two different locations: proximal in the thigh and distal close to the tibia. In the second group, three different recording derivations (10–20 International system) to distal saphenous stimulation were tested. Distal stimulation yielded a higher Sap-SEP amplitude (mean ± SD) than proximal: 1.36 ± 0.9 µV versus 0.62 ± 0.6 µV, (p < 0.0001). Distal stimulation evoked either higher (73%) or similar (12%) Sap-SEP amplitude compared to proximal in most of the nerves. The recording derivation CPz–cCP showed the highest amplitude in 65% of the nerves, followed by CPz–Fz (24%). Distal stimulation for Sap-SEP has advantages over proximal stimulation, including simplicity, lack of movement and higher amplitude responses. The use of two derivations (CPz–cCP, CPz–Fz) optimizes Sap-SEP recording.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1079-1085
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring
  • Lumbar spine surgery
  • Methodology
  • Saphenous nerve
  • Somatosensory evoked potentials

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