Background: Optimism, coping, and resilience may be independent predictors of anxiety, distress, depression, or health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with breast cancer. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) searches of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases from January 1, 1990, to April 30, 2018, for articles (i.e., studies) determining the impact of optimism, coping, or resilience on anxiety, distress, depression, or HRQOL in women with breast cancer. Articles included only those that measured optimism by the life orientation test (LOT) or LOT-revised (R), coping by the COPE, brief (B)-COPE, or religious (R)-COPE, and resilience by the CD-Resilience Scale (CD-RIS). Results: Forty-one out of 52 (79%) studies showed that optimism is a statistically significant predictor of study-specific aspects of anxiety, distress, depression, or HRQOL. In a meta-analysis focused on depression, optimism was a statistically significant predictor of depression. Coping style is a statistically significant predictor for study-specific aspects of anxiety, distress, depression, or HRQOL in 41/43 (95%) studies. The coping studies were too heterogeneous in their outcome variables to perform meta-analyses. There were too few studies (n = 6) on resilience to draw any conclusions. Conclusions: Despite many limitations of this literature, including the heterogeneity of study designs, differing sample sizes, across different countries, cultures, ethnicities, and races, most studies support that optimism and coping are predictors of anxiety, distress, depression, or HRQOL. Awareness of these psychological constructs and their potential impact on anxiety, depression, and HRQOL are a high priority.
- Breast cancer
- Health-related quality of life