Optimal usage of the GnRH antagonists: A review of the literature

Alan B. Copperman, Claudio Benadiva

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, which became commercially available from 1999, have been used for the prevention of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges in controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This review focuses on the recent literature on the use of GnRH antagonists and provides guidelines for optimal use in light of increasing evidence showing that GnRH antagonists are safe and effective, allowing flexibility of treatment in a wide range of patient populations. This includes patients undergoing first-line controlled ovarian stimulation, poor responders, and women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. The GnRH antagonist offers a viable alternative to the long agonists, providing a shorter duration of treatment with fewer injections and with no adverse effects on assisted reproductive technology outcome. This results in a significantly lower amount of gonadotropins required, which is likely to lead to improved patient compliance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalReproductive Biology and Endocrinology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2013


  • GnRH agonists
  • GnRH antagonists
  • IVF
  • OHSS
  • Ovarian stimulation


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