Objective: To investigate vascular and morphologic optic disc changes after slotted plaque radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma involving the optic disc. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants: Thirty-nine patients with choroidal melanoma involving the optic nerve. Methods: Each melanoma was treated with palladium-103 slotted plaque brachytherapy (incorporating and/or surrounding the optic nerve sheath) between 2005 and 2019. Imaging of the optic nerve before and after radiation allowed for documentation and evaluation of optic nerve pallor and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) CDR measurements and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded pretreatment and at follow-up. Of these patients, 22 also had OCT angiography (OCT-A) images with sufficient quality for evaluation of blood vessel density and length. Differences in cup-to-disc measurements were correlated with changes in OCT-A-measured vessel density and length. Results: Following slotted plaque radiation therapy, there was no significant increase in IOP or optic nerve pallor. OCT and colour photography revealed significant increases (both p < 0.001) in CDR from pretreatment to the last follow-up. Increased CDRs on OCT were significantly correlated to OCT-A-measured change in vessel length (p = 0.027). Similarly, increased CDR ratios on fundus photography were significantly correlated with OCT-A-measured change in vessel density (p = 0.043) and length (p = 0.019). Conclusion: Fundus photography and OCT measurements revealed increased optic disc cupping following slotted plaque radiation therapy. Cupping was associated with OCT-A evidence of synchronous progressive peripapillary vascular occlusion and attenuation. Therefore, slotted plaque radiation–induced peripapillary and papillary ischemia was associated with increased CDR ratios and optic disc cupping.