Operative risks of the Ross procedure

Paul Stelzer, Javier Mejia, Robin Varghese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: The risk of the Ross procedure continues to be debated. We sought to determine the immediate outcomes of the Ross procedure in a large consecutive cohort that included patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery and/or concomitant cardiac procedures. Methods: Between March 1987 and September 2019, 702 patients underwent a full root Ross procedure. There were 530 male patients and 172 female patients, with a mean age of 41.6 years. One hundred and one patients had at least one previous sternotomy; 323 patients had concomitant procedures. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: simple and complex. Simple Ross patients were those who had no previous sternotomy and had only minor concomitant procedures performed at the time of their Ross, such as aortoplasty or closure of patent foramen ovale. The complex Ross group included patients with at least one previous sternotomy and/or additional procedures that we deemed complex, such as ascending aortic replacement and mitral valve repair. Complexity and group outcomes were evaluated in consecutive terciles of time. Results: There were 7 (1%) operative deaths. Morbidity affected 46 other patients (6.6%). The simple Ross group comprised 419 patients (59.7%), with mortality in 3 (0.7%) and morbidity in 20 (4.8%). The complex Ross comprised 283 patients (40.3%), with mortality in 4 (1.4%) and morbidity in 26 (9.2%). Simple Ross cases decreased in volume over time, with complex cases increasing from 34% to 48%. Conclusions: Excellent results can be achieved with the Ross procedure despite broader indications that include patients with previous sternotomy and with the need for concomitant procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-915.e3
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Ross procedure
  • aortic root replacement
  • pulmonary autograft


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