Elevated expression of polo-like kinase1 (Plk1) has been reported in many human tumors, and inhibition of Plk1 activity results in their mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Here we describe the profile of ON01910, a small molecule inhibitor of Plk1 activity, which induces mitotic arrest of tumor cells characterized by spindle abnormalities leading to their apoptosis. This compound was not ATP-competitive, but competed for the substrate binding site of the enzyme. In vivo, this compound did not exhibit hematotoxicity, liver damage, or neurotoxicity, and was a potent inhibitor of tumor growth in a variety of xenograft nude mouse models. ON01910 showed strong synergy with several chemotherapeutic agents, often inducing complete regression of tumors.