Patients presenting for surgical coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are older and have more comorbidity than patients in prior decades. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may add to the elevated morbidity and mortality seen in these higher-risk patients. After the re-introduction of single-vessel bypass without CPB, surgeons have developed techniques for multivessel off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) through sternotomy. Understanding the causes of the hemodynamic disturbances seen during cardiac displacement has led to surgical techniques that minimize mechanical compression and the effects of temporary regional ischemia. With careful attention to detail, OPCAB has been shown to be feasible in nearly all patients needing coronary artery bypass. The procedure has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Early outcomes and graft patency rates appear to be at least as good as those seen with traditional CPB-supported CABG. Certain high-risk groups may be better treated with OPCAB, but further studies are necessary to elucidate which patients should be offered OPCAB and which should receive standard CABG.
- Beating heart surgery
- Less invasive cardiac surgery
- Minimally invasive cardiac surgery
- Off-pump coronary artery bypass