Background: While a growing body of research highlights a bi-directional link between diabetes and mood disorders, little is known about the relationship between diabetes and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present review is to investigate current evidence linking OCD, insulin-signaling and diabetes. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to review all the available studies assessing diabetes, glucose metabolism and insulin-signaling in OCD patients and vice versa. Results: Some clinical and epidemiological studies show a higher prevalence of diabetes in OCD and vice versa compared to the general population. Animal and genetic studies suggest a possible role of insulin-signaling in the pathophysiology of OCD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) studies suggest that abnormal dopaminergic transmission in the striatum may contribute to impaired insulin sensitivity in OCD. While DBS seems to increase insulin sensitivity, a possible protective role of serotonin reuptake-inhibitors on diabetic risk needs further studies. Conclusion: Despite their preliminary nature, these data highlight the importance of further investigations aimed at assessing metabolic features in OCD patients and OCD symptoms in diabetes patients to understand the impact of each condition on the pathophysiology and course of the other. Understanding the role of insulin in the obsessive-compulsive brain could open new treatment pathways for OCD.