Observation of Interfractional Variations in Lung Tumor Position Using Respiratory Gated and Ungated Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Jenghwa Chang, Gig S. Mageras, Ellen Yorke, Fernando De Arruda, Jussi Sillanpaa, Kenneth E. Rosenzweig, Agung Hertanto, Hai Pham, Edward Seppi, Alex Pevsner, C. Clifton Ling, Howard Amols

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate the use of megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) to measure interfractional variation in lung tumor position. Methods and Materials: Eight non-small-cell lung cancer patients participated in the study, 4 with respiratory gating and 4 without. All patients underwent MV CBCT scanning at weekly intervals. Contoured planning CT and MV CBCT images were spatially registered based on vertebral anatomy, and displacements of the tumor centroid determined. Setup error was assessed by comparing weekly portal orthogonal radiographs with digitally reconstructed radiographs generated from planning CT images. Hypothesis testing was performed to test the statistical significance of the volume difference, centroid displacement, and setup uncertainty. Results: The vertebral bodies and soft tissue portions of tumor within lung were visible on the MV CBCT scans. Statistically significant systematic volume decrease over the course of treatment was observed for 1 patient. The average centroid displacement between simulation CT and MV CBCT scans were 2.5 mm, -2.0 mm, and -1.5 mm with standard deviations of 2.7 mm, 2.7 mm, and 2.6 mm in the right-left, anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions. The mean setup errors were smaller than the centroid shifts, while the standard deviations were comparable. In most cases, the gross tumor volume (GTV) defined on the MV CBCT was located on average at least 5 mm inside a 10 mm expansion of the GTV defined on the planning CT scan. Conclusions: The MV CBCT technique can be used to image lung tumors and may prove valuable for image-guided radiotherapy. Our conclusions must be verified in view of the small patient number.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1548-1558
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Image-guided radiotherapy
  • Interfractional variation
  • Mega-voltage CBCT
  • Respiratory gating
  • Setup verification


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