One of the main public health concerns of emerging viruses is their potential introduction into and sustained circulation among populations of immunologically naïve, susceptible hosts. The induction of protective immunity through vaccination can be a powerful tool to prevent this concern by conferring protection to the population at risk. Conventional approaches to develop vaccines against emerging pathogens have significant limitations: lack of experimental tools for several emerging viruses of concern, poor immunogenicity, safety issues, or lack of cross-protection against antigenic variants. The unpredictability of the emergence of future virus threats demands the capability to rapidly develop safe, effective vaccines.We describe some recent advances in new vaccine strategies that are being explored as alternatives to classical attenuated and inactivated vaccines, and provide examples of potential novel vaccines for emerging viruses. These approaches might be applied to the control of many other emerging pathogens.