Background: Cases of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern (familial AD [FAD]) are rare but have greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of AD. We describe herein a kindred with very early-onset FAD (age, <40 years) with unusual pathological features and a novel mutation in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene (S170F) and review the existing literature on very early-onset FAD. Objective: To analyze the neuropathological and genetic features of a family with onset of AD in the third decade of life. Design, Setting, and Participants: The proband underwent full clinical assessment and postmortem examination at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, St Louis, Mo. Limited pathological samples and autopsy records of 2 affected family members were available. The proband underwent screening for mutations in genes linked with FAD. Results: Dementia developed in 3 family members in this kindred at a mean age of 27 years; the proband had myoclonus, seizures, and rigidity, similar to findings in previously described kindreds with PSEN1 mutations. All 3 family members were confirmed to have AD by neuropathological examination. The proband also had widespread Lewy body pathology in the brainstem, limbic areas, and neocortex; specific staining for Lewy bodies was not performed in the other 2 family members. The proband had a single mutation (S170F) in exon 6 of the PSEN1 gene, which segregates with disease. Conclusions: A novel PSEN1 mutation causes very early-onset FAD with associated Lewy bodies. To our knowledge, this kindred has the earliest reported onset of pathologically confirmed FAD and dementia with Lewy bodies.