Mutations have been reported for several craniosynostotic disorders in exon Illa (exon U or 7) or Illc (exon B or 9) of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2). Among the conditions with FGFR2 mutations are two autosomal dominant syndromes, Crouzon and Jackson-Weiss. In this study, 24 Crouzon and one Jackson-Weiss syndrome patients were screened for mutations in the two exons by direct sequencing, and mutations were detected in 28% (7/25) of all cases. Five different mutations were found including two novel (W290G, C342W) and two previously reported, recurrent mutations for Crouzon syndrome (A344A, S354C), and one new mutation for Jackson-Weiss syndrome (C342R). The W290G mutation was found in exon Illa which is common to both alternatively spliced forms of FGFR2, BEK (expressed predominantly in primordial bones) and KGFR (expressed preferentially in epithelia). Atypical Crouzon syndrome features of epithelial-derived anal and/or external ear anomalies were present in the two affected family members with the mutation. This phenotype possibly reflects the expression of both mutant BEK and KGFR. In addition, the Jackson-Weiss syndrome mutation, C342R, in exon Illc was observed previously in other craniosynostotic syndromes, Crouzon and Pfeiffer. These results underscore the allelic heterogeneity of these conditions and the complexity of the phenotypic consequences of FGFR2 mutations. / 1995 Oxford University Press.