The developmental changes of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) during the second and third trimesters, specifically the brain, relate mostly to changes in size. However, other changes do occur in the fetal brain during the second and third trimester such as: the union of the cerebellar hemispheres, development of the corpus callosum (CC), and increasing complexity of the cerebral cortex. These changes follow a well-defined developmental timeline recognizable by sonography. The fetal neuroscan can be divided into a 'basic scan' which is performed transabdominally and a 'targeted Exam or neurosonogram' which uses a multiplanar approach, which preferably should be performed transvaginally. During the 'basic scan', several brain structures are imaged in addition to obtaining important biometric measurements. The 'neurosonogram' is a more extensive or detailed fetal study during which the emphasis is on the addition of coronal and sagittal planes. The easiest way to obtain these planes, if the fetus is in a cephalic presentation, is the transvaginal route. Three-dimensional (3D) sonography should, if possible, be performed transvaginally using the multiplanar approach. An added benefit of 3D sonography is the ability to display and render the volume in a variety of ways which may enhance the detection of pathology.
- Transvaginal sonography