PubMed was searched from 1935 to December 2017 with a variety of search phrases among article titles. The references of the identified manuscripts were then manually searched. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the paper presented data on measured normal body temperature of healthy human subjects ages 18 and older, (2) a prospective design was used, and (3) the paper was written in or translated into the English language. Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. This comprised 9227 measurement sites from 7636 subjects. The calculated ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations) were 36.32-37.76 (rectal), 35.76-37.52 (tympanic), 35.61-37.61 (urine), 35.73-37.41 (oral), and 35.01-36.93 (axillary). Older adults (age ≥60) had lower temperature than younger adults (age <60) by 0.23°C, on average. There was only insignificant gender difference. Compared with the currently established reference point for normothermia of 36.8°C, our means are slightly lower but the difference likely has no physiological importance. We conclude that the most important patient factors remain site of measurement and patient's age.
- body temperature