Summary: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease experience high pain and symptom burden, but management of chronic pain in this population remains challenging. Recent studies have shown a high rate of opioid prescription and use in patients with kidney disease. However, the concern for opioid-related morbidity and mortality suggests a need to reconsider the safety and efficacy of opioid use in patients with CKD. In this review, we describe the current approaches to pain management in CKD, highlight the evolving opioid-related risks and kidney-specific concerns, and offer both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic nonopioid strategies for pain management in patients with kidney disease, emphasizing the importance of using a multimodal approach to optimize pain control.
- chronic kidney disease
- pain management