Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease: The Neurobiology of Early Psychiatric and Cognitive Dysfunction

Ayan Hussein, Christopher A. Guevara, Pamela Del Valle, Swati Gupta, Deanna L. Benson, George W. Huntley

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has been recognized for over 200 years by its clinically dominant motor system impairment. There are prominent non-motor symptoms as well, and among these, psychiatric symptoms of depression and anxiety and cognitive impairment are common and can appear earlier than motor symptoms. Although the neurobiology underlying these particular PD-associated non-motor symptoms is not completely understood, the identification of PARK genes that contribute to hereditary and sporadic PD has enabled genetic models in animals that, in turn, have fostered ever deepening analyses of cells, synapses, circuits, and behaviors relevant to non-motor psychiatric and cognitive symptoms of human PD. Moreover, while it has long been recognized that inflammation is a prominent component of PD, recent studies demonstrate that brain-immune signaling crosstalk has significant modulatory effects on brain cell and synaptic function in the context of psychiatric symptoms. This review provides a focused update on such progress in understanding the neurobiology of PD-related non-motor psychiatric and cognitive symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-116
Number of pages20
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • LRRK2
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • SNCA
  • Vps35
  • neurodegeneration
  • non-motor symptoms
  • social defeat stress
  • synaptic plasticity


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