Purpose: We review the current state of knowledge of nocturia and present algorithms for diagnosis, classification and treatment. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the recent literature on nocturia, and state-of-the-art methods of diagnosis, classification and treatment. Results: Nocturia, which is among the most bothersome of all urological symptoms, has heretofore been poorly classified and understood. Multiple factors may result in nocturia, including pathological conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, lower urinary tract obstruction, anxiety or primary sleep disorders, and behavioral and environmental factors. Nocturia may be attributed to nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal urine overproduction) and/or diminished nocturnal bladder capacity. Distinction between these conditions is made by a simple arithmetic analysis of a 24-hour voiding diary. Conclusions: Nocturia has been poorly studied, and its etiology and pathogenesis have been classified only recently. We present a scheme for diagnosis and care of patients suffering from loss of sleep due to nocturnal voiding.
- Urination disorders