No needles needed: All-oral therapy options for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma

Joseph Franz, Elizabeth Myrus, Larysa Sanchez, Joshua Richter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Immense progress has been made for the treatment of multiple myeloma over the past two decades, with patient outcomes improving dramatically as a result. Patient quality of life, however, is constantly challenged by complications of the disease, side effects of therapy and the overall burden receiving continuous treatment. Compared to parenteral agents, all-oral regimens can provide logistically favorable alternatives and are associated with improved quality of life. Here, we review the currently available and investigational oral therapies for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma and provide a practical clinical reference tool. We explore the factors that dictate the selection of therapy, such as prior drug refractoriness, disease biology and patient-specific considerations. Regimens with their respective supporting clinical data are organized by the degree of prior treatment, from lenalidomide-sensitive to heavily pretreated patients. We explore common challenges such as renal insufficiency and cytopenias. Lastly, we review investigational oral agents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100993
JournalBlood Reviews
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Multiple myeloma
  • Oral therapies
  • Regimens
  • Relapsed and refractory


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