Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a severe cell lipidosis characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the endosomal/lysosomal system. Recently the primary disease-causing gene, NPC1, was identified, but few clues regarding its potential function(s) could be derived from its predicted amino acid sequence. Therefore, efforts were directed at characterizing the subcellular location of the NPC1 protein. Initial studies with a FLAG-tagged NPC1 cDNA demonstrated that NPC1 is a glycoprotein that associates with the membranes of a population of cytoplasmic vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-NPC1 polyclonal antibodies confirmed this analysis. Double-label immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies indicated that NPC1 associates predominantly with late endosomes (Rab9 GTPase-positive vesicles) and, to a lesser extent, with lysosomes and the trans-Golgi network. When cholesterol egress from lysosomes was blocked by treatment of cells with U18666A, the NPC1 location shifted from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and lysosomes. Subcellular fractionation of liver homogenates from U18666A-treated mice confirmed these observations. These data suggest that U18666A may inhibit the retrograde transport of NPC1 from lysosomes to late endosomes for subsequent transfer to the trans-Golgi network.
- Cholesterol transport
- Low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol
- Niemann-Pick C1