Although biological systems have evolved to promote stress-resilience, there is variation in stress-responses. Understanding the biological basis of such individual differences has implications for understanding Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) etiology, which is a maladaptive response to trauma occurring only in a subset of vulnerable individuals. PTSD involves failure to reinstate physiological homeostasis after traumatic events and is due to either intrinsic or trauma-related alterations in physiological systems across the body. Master homeostatic regulators that circulate and operate throughout the organism, such as stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids) and immune mediators (e.g., cytokines), are at the crossroads of peripheral and central susceptibility pathways and represent promising functional biomarkers of stress-response and target for novel therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-140
Number of pages8
JournalExperimental Neurology
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2016


  • Biomarkers
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Immune system
  • Individual differences
  • Novel treatments
  • PTSD
  • Stress


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