New paramedic scope of practice in Poland based on the 2022 reform

Katarzyna Nowak-Zając, Alicja Domagała, Iwona A. Bielska, Iwona Kowalska-Bobko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Emergency medical systems in the world are mainly based on two main models: the Franco-German System (FGS) and the Anglo-American System (AAS). The characteristic feature of the FGS is the "Stay and Play" principle, while the AAS system is based on the "Scoop and Run” principle. The Polish model is a mix of those two systems mainly based on the work of paramedics. Their scope of operations and powers have changed over time. As a result of the advocacy undertaken by paramedics in Poland, legislation was drafted and became law in June 2023. The central changes include: the introduction of a paramedic register, the establishment of a professional self-government of paramedics, the expansion of professional competencies such as the ability to declare death, and new opportunities for professional development including speciality training or paid training leave. This article discusses the new law in the context of previous legislative solutions in the field of emergency medicine in Poland and in other European countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105015
JournalHealth Policy
StatePublished - May 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Emergency medical services
  • Paramedic register
  • Paramedic self-government
  • Paramedics


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