New-generation electronic appliances and cardiac implantable electronic devices: a systematic literature review of mechanisms and in vivo studies

Jakrin Kewcharoen, Kuldeep Shah, Rahul Bhardwaj, Tahmeed Contractor, Mohit K. Turagam, Ravi Mandapati, Dhanunjaya Lakkireddy, Jalaj Garg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) functions are susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI) from electromagnetic fields (EMF). Data on EMI risks from new-generation electronic appliances (EA) are limited. Objective: We performed a systematic literature review on the mechanisms of EMI, current evidence, and recently published trials evaluating the effect of EMF on CIEDs from electric vehicles (EV), smartphone, and smartwatch technology and summarize its safety data. Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were searched for in vivo studies evaluating EMF strength and incidence between CIEDs and commercial EVs, new-generation smartphones, and new-generation smartwatches. Results: A total of ten studies (three on EVs, five on smartphones, one on smartphones, one on smartphones and smartwatches) were included in our systematic review. There was no report of EMI incidence associated with EVs or smartwatches. Magnet-containing smartphones (iPhone 12) can cause EMI when placed directly over CIEDs — thereby triggering the magnet mode; otherwise, no report of EMI was observed with other positions or smartphone models. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests CIED recipients are safe from general interaction with EVs/HEVs, smartphones, and smartwatches. Strictly, results may only be applied to commercial brands or models tested in the published studies. There is limited data on EMI risk from EVs wireless charging and smartphones with MagSafe technology. Graphical abstract: Interaction between new generation electronic appliances and cardiac implantable electronic devices (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • Cardiac implantable electronic devices
  • Electromagnetic field
  • Electronic devices

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'New-generation electronic appliances and cardiac implantable electronic devices: a systematic literature review of mechanisms and in vivo studies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this