New 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index Using American College of Surgeons NSQIP Data

Sneha Subramaniam, Jeffrey J. Aalberg, Rainier P. Soriano, Celia M. Divino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

574 Scopus citations


Background: The modified frailty index (mFI-11) is a NSQIP-based 11-factor index that has been proven to adequately reflect frailty and predict mortality and morbidity. These 11 factors, made of 16 variables, map to the original 70-item Canada Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index. In past years, certain NSQIP variables have been removed from the database; as of 2015, only 5 of the original 11 factors remained. The predictive power and usefulness of these 5 factors in an index (mFI-5) have not been proven in past literature. The goal of our study was to compare the mFI-5 to the mFI-11 in terms of value and predictive ability for mortality, postoperative infection, and unplanned 30-day readmission. Study Design: The mFI was calculated by dividing the number of factors present for a patient by the number of available factors for which there were no missing data. Spearman's rho was used to assess correlation between the mFI-5 and mFI-11. Predictive models, using both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions, were created for each outcome for 9 surgical sub-specialties using 2012 NSQIP data, the last year all mFI-11 variables existed. Results: Correlation between the mFI-5 and mFI-11 was above 0.9 across all surgical specialties except for cardiac and vascular surgery. Adjusted and unadjusted models showed similar c-statistics for mFI-5 and mFI-11, and strong predictive ability for mortality and postoperative complications. Conclusions: The mFI-5 and the mFI-11 are equally effective predictors in all sub-specialties and the mFI-5 is a strong predictor of mortality and postoperative complications. It has credibility for future use to study frailty within the NSQIP database. It also has potential in other databases and for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-181.e8
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018


Dive into the research topics of 'New 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index Using American College of Surgeons NSQIP Data'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this