Neuroscience in pictures: 2. Sleep, wakefulness, and mental state biology

Seo Ho Song, Tony J. Cunningham, Yelu Zhang, Paulo Lizano, Matcheri S. Keshavan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sleep is a vital restorative process that has occupied our curiosity for millennia. Despite our longstanding research efforts, the biology of sleep and its connection to mental states remains enigmatic. Unsurprisingly, sleep and wakefulness, the fundamental processes between which our mental states oscillate, are inseparable from our physical and mental health. Thus, clinical consideration of sleep impairments warrants a transdiagnostic approach whilst appropriately acknowledging that certain individual disorders (e.g. depression, schizophrenia) may have somewhat distinct sleep disturbances. Moreover, our knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of sleep regulation—albeit limited—forms the foundation for current treatments for sleep difficulties. This pictorial article overviews the core concepts and future of sleep neuroscience and mental state biology for trainees and practitioners in psychiatry and related professions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104070
JournalAsian Journal of Psychiatry
StatePublished - Aug 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Mental states
  • Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry
  • Sleep
  • Wakefulness


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