Neuromuscular blockers

J. M. Gracies, D. Simpson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The use of corrosive, injectable neuromuscular blockers has been a treatment option for many years; however, the more recent advent of botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment has revived interest in localized treatments. This article reviews the use of local anesthetics, alcohol, phenol, and BTX treatment for localized muscular overactivity syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-383
Number of pages27
JournalPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999


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