Neuromodulation for treatment-resistant depression

Paul E. Holtzheimer, Helen S. Mayberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Treatment-resistant depression affects at least 1-3% of the US population. This article reviews the current state of focal neuromodulation therapies for treatment-resistant depression, having published clinical data. These include transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation among others.Of these, only two (transcranialmagnetic stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation) currently have US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of depression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
JournalF1000 Medicine Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


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