Nephrotic Syndrome

Estefania Rodriguez-Ballestas, Jessica Reid-Adam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Nephrotic syndrome (NS) encompasses a variety of disease processes leading to heavy proteinuria and edema. Minimal change disease (MCD) remains the most common primary cause of NS, as well as the most responsive to pharmacologic treatment with often minimal to no chronic kidney disease. Other causes of NS include focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, which follows MCD, and secondary causes, including extrarenal or systemic diseases, infections, and drugs. Although initial diagnosis relies on clinical findings as well as urine and blood chemistries, renal biopsy and genetic testing are important diagnostic tools, especially when considering non-MCD NS. Moreover, biomarkers in urine and serum have become important areas for research in this disease. NS progression and prognosis are variable and depend on etiology, with corticosteroids being the mainstay of treatment. Other alternative therapies found to be successful in inducing and maintaining remission include calcineurin inhibitors and rituximab. Disease course can range from recurrent disease relapse with or without acute kidney injury to end-stage renal disease in some cases. Given the complex pathogenesis of NS, which remains incompletely understood, complications are numerous and diverse and include infections, electrolyte abnormalities, acute kidney injury, and thrombosis. Pediatricians must be aware of the presentation, complications, and overall long-term implications of NS and its treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-99
Number of pages13
JournalPediatrics in Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


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