Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis with a spectrum of clinical and histopathological presentation: A disorder of aberrant dermal remodeling

A. Deng, D. Bilu Martin, A. Spillane, J. Chwalek, S. Surin-Lord, Sara Brooks, John Petrali, B. Sina, A. Gaspari, G. Kao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (NFD) has emerged as a clinicopathologic entity since 1997 and recently renamed as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). The etiology and pathogenesis remain uncertain. Characteristic clinical presentation is described as diffuse thickening and hardening of the skin occurring in patients with renal insufficiency. Typical histological features include proliferation of CD34 positive fibrocytes, increased thick collagen bundles and mucin deposition, without significant inflammatory infiltrate. Variations in clinical presentations have been reported, including papular and plaque-like skin lesions, focal lesion only, as well as systemic involvement. Histological changes can be subtle and non-specific, overlapping with other disease processes and harboring features including calcification and osteoclast-like giant cells with osseous metaplasia. Methods: We reviewed patients with NSF that presented to our dermatology clinic by chart review, clinical examination and histological examination. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from all cases. Histopathology evaluations were carried out by three dermatopathologists (AD, BS and GK) independently and the features were compared among all the cases. Special stains and immunohistochemistry study were also performed to highlight the histological features. Results: Seven cases of NSF presented with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, from classic diffuse hardening of the skin to localized linear plaques. On histological examination, proliferation of CD34-positive fibrocytes ranged from sparse to dense, collagen bundles ranged from thin to thick, and the interstitial dermal mucin accumulation ranged from scant-patchy to abundant. In addition, the lesion displayed various degrees of vascular proliferation, inflammatory infiltrates and intensities of CD68 and Factor XIIIa staining. Two cases showed extensive dermal calcification and ossification. Conclusion: NSF may present with a spectrum of clinical abnormalities, and exhibit overlapping histopathological features resembling cicatrix and other dermal reparative/regenerative processes. NSF may in fact to be a disorder of aberrant extracellular matrix remodeling in patients with renal insufficiency. Deng A, Bilu Martin D, Spillane A, Chwalek J, St. Surin-Lord S, Brooks S, Petrali J, Sina B, Gaspari A, Kao G. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis with a spectrum of clinical and histopathological presentation: a disorder of aberrant dermal remodeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-210
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cutaneous Pathology
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis with a spectrum of clinical and histopathological presentation: A disorder of aberrant dermal remodeling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this